# Albert Einstein: The Greatest of all Scientists

The Great Scientist Albert Einstein was born on 14th March 1879 in Ulm, Kingdom of Wurttemberg German Empire. He died on 18th April 1955, at the age of 76. As the circumstances suited him he shifted his residences quite often. Such as his education, research opportunities, and his profession. He spent most of his life in Europe. He belonged to religion Ashkenazi Jewish and German.

His father was a salesman and engineer, Herman Einstein. Pauline Einstein was his mother. In 1880 the family shifted to Munich. And they started making electric equipment based on direct current.

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## Early’s Life of Sir Einstein

Albert Einstein received his early education in a Catholic school. He was a top student in spite of speech difficulties. Moreover, he built mechanical toys using mathematical deductions in his youth days. A family relative gave him books on science like Kant’s critique of pure reason and Euclid’s Elements after seeing his interest in science.

In 1895 the family shifted to Italy. But he stayed back to complete his studies. But he disagreed with the school’s rote learning method and withdrew. He wrote his first “The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields” scientific work at school.

Einstein completed his secondary school in Aarau, Switzerland. He graduated at 17 years.

Einstein surrendered his German citizenship to avoid military service. He joined the Polytechnic in Zurich to teach mathematics and physics. Mileva Maric also joined for studies same year. Soon they developed a romance. Einstein had great regard for her academic qualities.

He graduated in 1900 with a Diploma in physics and mathematics. Some historians believe that Maric inspired his work. They married in 1903. And they had two sons namely Hans and Eduard. They were divorced on 14th February 1919 after 5 years separation. Albert Einstein married his cousin Elsa Lowenthal in 1923. She later developed heart and kidney problems and died in 1936.

### Job’s Career

Einstein could not find a proper job for almost two years after graduation. He secured one at the Patent Office with some help. As an assistant to evaluate applications for intellectual property patents. And he had ample opportunity here to analyze electro-mechanical synchronization of time and transmission of electrical signals. Moreover, these problems led him to conclusions about the nature of light. And the fundamental question between time and space. While still at Patent Office, his first paper appeared in the well-known Annalen der Physic on “Capillary Forces of a straw”.

## Albert Einstein’s Scientific Career

Albert Einstein had always been convinced that Atoms existed. And it

Albert Einstein believed that if the atom is a reality then one consistent theory should explain aspects of observations. He undertook real hard efforts that finally led him to thermodynamics. And then he further leaded to statistical physics. He concluded his work the theory of specific heats of solids.

The leading German journal Annalen der Physik published Einstein’s four papers (Annus Mirabilis Papers), in 1905 calling it Einstein’s ‘Miracle Year’.

### Special Relativity

In 1905 his papers discussed the radical theory of special relativity. He observed that independence of speed of light required fundamental changes to the notion of simultaneity. This reflected on the time-space frame of a moving body slowing down relative to the observer. Similarly in the paper on mass-energy equivalence were then considered. Albert Einstein concluded with the help of equations of special relativity. This summed up that small mass could be converted into huge amounts of energy. This finding proved a prediction on nuclear power.

He spent 10 years trying to include acceleration in his theory. Moreover, he published his work within acceleration in 1915. In that, he determined that massive objects cause a distortion in space-time. Moreover, Einstein was talking about those objects which are felt as gravity.

### Protons

In 1905 Einstein projected another theory that light itself was made up of localized particles (quanta). And almost all scientists rejected it. However, Robert Millikan completed his experiments on the photoelectric effect. Moreover he measured Crompton scattering in 1919. Therefore, this confirmed the light particles idea of Einstein. He was motivated and led to it by thermodynamic considerations. And it had nothing to do with photoelectric effects. His entropy defined detailed equations on light wavelengths. And frequency differences within the same light, which were later accepted as realistic conclusions.

Albert Einstein’s formula E = mc2 related the mass defect and binding energy. Einstein developed the special theory of relativity in 1905. Matter and energy are interchangeable with one another. These are one of the implications of this theory. This equation states that a mass (m) can be converted into an amount of energy (E). And c is the speed of light in an equation. C squared is huge because the speed of light is a large number. Moreover, a small amount of matter can be converted into a tremendous amount of energy. However, this equation is the key to the power of nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors.

#### Mass of Nucleus (Proton & Neutron)

The mass of the nucleus is about 1 percent smaller than the mass of its individual protons and neutrons. This difference is known as the mass defect. Moreover, the mass defect arises from the energy released. This happens when the nucleons (protons and neutrons) bind together to form the nucleus. This energy is called as the binding energy. So, the binding energy determines which nuclei are stable. And how much energy is released in a nuclear reaction? Therefore, very heavy nuclei and very light nuclei have low binding energies. In short, this implies that a heavy nucleus will release energy when it splits apart (fission). And two light nuclei will release energy when they join (fusion).

For example, the hydrogen 2 nuclei composed of one proton and one neutron. 2.23 million electron volts (MeV) of energy can also separate them. Conversely, when a slowly moving neutron and proton combine to form hydrogen 2 nucleuses, 2.23 MeV are liberated.

### Atomic Vibrations (quantize)

The specific heat anomaly in solids was concluded. And it also ratified by applying the quantum theory in 1906. Einstein based his working on the notion. That each atom oscillates independently. As he usually thought and they are not joined to others. He proved the motion of atoms, their velocities, the quantized motion and specific heat calculations with help of detailed demonstrations. And he also observed that even at zero temperatures match those deducted by other scientists, earlier and the present. Further work by others reconfirmed the correct application. Moreover, this work of Einstein laid the foundation of condensed matter physics.

### Adiabatic Principle and action-angle variable

Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus of the atom. He stated that electrons orbit it like planets. Niels Bohr proved that the quantum mechanical postulates of Planck and developed by Einstein. He explained the discrete motion of electrons in atoms. And further described the adiabatic principle and adiabatic invariant.

### Wave-Particle Duality

Albert Einstein elaborated on Max Planck’s energy quanta. He possessed momentum. And they should act as independent particles. This 1909 paper projected the photon concept. And wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics.

Wave Particle Duality states that light and matter both hold the properties of waves and particles. Therefore, this is a central concept of quantum mechanics. Moreover, duality addresses the inadequacy of conventional concepts like “particle” and “wave”. The reason is to meaningfully describe the behavior of quantum objects.

The idea of duality is rooted in a debate over the nature of light. This was the time when competing theories of light were proposed by Christiaan Huygens and Isaac Newton.

It is now established that all objects have both wave and particle nature. It was done through the work of Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, and many others. Moreover, this phenomenon is only detectable on small scales such as with atoms. And a suitable interpretation of quantum mechanics also provides the over-arching theory resolving this ostensible paradox.

### Critical Opalescence

Albert Einstein refers to Raleigh scattering. He explained that light of all wavelengths. He stated that wavelengths are scattered. And the fluid looks milky white. This also depends on the density and some other factors. Critical opalescence is a phenomenon that is associated with a phase change. And you will almost certainly not have witnessed. First, it occurs when a liquid at room temperature is sealed in a strong container and heated.

Moreover, some liquid evaporates which filling the space in the container. If you continue heating more evaporation will happen. And this leads to increasing vapor pressure. As it expands and the density of the vapor increases the density of the liquid falls. A point is reached eventually where the density of the liquid and the gas are equal. Therefore, at this point, there is no way to tell which phase is which and the container is filled with ‘fluid’.

### Energy at Zero Point

Albert Einstein noted that oscillator energies by Planck had incorrect zero points. This view was made in 1913. It stated that according to thermodynamics a molecule with two atoms can split into two free atoms. Moreover, he proposed a new formula for this. Zero-point energy is also called as ground state energy. It can also the greatest gift the quantum. Moreover, it’s a byproduct of the fact that subatomic particles. Because they don’t really behave like single particles. But like waves constantly flitting between different energy states. This means the seemingly empty vacuum of space is actually a roiling sea of virtual particles. They feel like fluctuating in and out of existence. And all those fluctuations require energy.

### Equivalence Principal

Albert Einstein had his ‘happiest thought’. He figured that gravity of one matter has effects on the other. Albert stated this according to gravitational fields. He visualized that when clocks are placed at different heights. And the lower one will move slower. As more force acts on it than the one that is placed higher. He confidently stated the earlier theory on gravity (Gunnar Nordstrom) was incorrect. These findings led him to publish a paper. Moreover, this was done from Prague announcing the effects of gravity on light. And specifically gravitational redshift and deflection of light. He proposed some thought experiments on general relativity.

### General Relativity

Albert Einstein published a paper on the general theory of relativity in 1915. The terms gravitation as a distortion of the structure of space-time by matter. These are affecting the inertial motion of the other matter. The worldwide astronomers set to prove him wrong. Moreover, he took observatories to view the ‘redshift’. In 1917 and 1918 no signs showed up. Arthur Stanley confirmed Einstein’s prediction of gravitational deflection of starlight. While photographing a solar eclipse in Brazil. Einstein was praised. And he received the best comments. This fact-finding illustrates the deep intuition of the Great Scientist.

Einstein continued his work on various other subjects. Much was still in the pipe line nearing completion when he died in 1955. His colleagues and fellow scientists are continuing his experiments further confidently. He stood his ground against a strong difference of opinion. And he was often proved convincingly right. Albert Einstein had his weak points also. In the course of unknown exploration of the natures secrets. And one has to take lead by assumptions. Side-tracking and often retreating back in the absence of positive signals. The achievements create history. So he has a lot many in his account. Only that matters while the rest of criticism is probably jealousy.

## Awards Named for Sir Albert Einstein

- Copley Model was awarded to Einstein in 1925 from Royal Society
- Max Planck proposed Einstein with Max Planck Model in 1929
- He received the Prix Jules Janssen in 1931
- Einstein was awarded Franklin Model for works on relativity in 1936
- The statue in Washington DC commissioned in 1979 is a monumental bronze statue depicting Einstein seated with manuscript papers in hand
- In 1999 Time magazine named him the Person of the Century
- In 1990, his name was added to the Walhalla temple for “laudable and distinguished Germans
- The US Postal Service honored Einstein with a Prominent Americans series (1965–1978) 8¢ postage stamp
- Einstein was inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame in 2008

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